Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter also has properties which can be observed. These properties are color, texture, shape, size, hardness, smell, temperature, magnetic attraction, dissolvability in liquid, and buoyancy. Buoyancy is the upward force of water or air that keeps things afloat. An example of buoyancy is a boat floating on top of water.

Mass is the amount of matter that makes up an object. It can be measured in kilograms and grams. A balance can be used to measure mass.

The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has definite shape and amount of space. Examples of solids are a book, pencil, and desk. A liquid takes the shape of its container and takes up a definite amount of space. Orange juice, water, and oil are examples of liquids. A gas does not have a definite shape or take up a definite amount of space. Helium and oxygen are examples of gases.